여수출장안마ψ24시출장샵ヤ여수세종시 마사지『여수브베 안마방』▤〖여수동대구역 마사지〗㍿여수중리동 안마방◐여수송탄 마사지☼여수방콕 에스코트♩여수평택 여관☆여수서양 마사지 토렌트

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

여수출장안마♘예약금없는출장샵ル여수세종시 마사지『여수군산 안마방』√〖여수사우나 마사지〗►여수덕계 마사지ⓔ여수쿤타이 마사지┞여수포이 펫 카지노 롤링リ여수콜걸출장마사지❖여수모텔 여자

The governments of more than 190 nations 안동양산 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

여수출장안마⇡24시출장샵◑여수세종시 마사지『여수영종도 마사지』⇢〖여수모텔출장마사지샵〗╨여수오피걸►여수안마방 모음┑여수석계 안마방⇩여수안마방 영업시간α여수김원중 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

여수출장안마▪예약금없는출장샵☑여수세종시 마사지『여수오피스 방』⇜〖여수전립선 마사지 방법〗┗여수구미 안마방↹여수멜라니卐여수안마방 성병➴여수안마방 스텝↖여수안마방 촬영

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 수원출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

여수출장안마◥예약금없는출장샵♐여수세종시 마사지『여수거제도 안마방』♢〖여수여주 모텔 추천〗➨여수다리 마사지₪여수일본 해수욕장 마사지マ여수목동역 마사지┺여수성균관대역 마사지↘여수50m

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 경주다낭 에덴 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

여수출장안마エ예약금없는출장샵◆여수세종시 마사지『여수철구 마사지』♘〖여수신촌 안마방〗✄여수상봉 안마방✘여수19금 마사지セ여수천안 대딸방ナ여수안양 안마방⇎여수부산 안마방 후기

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 진주출장안마 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

여수출장안마여수베트남 다낭 마사지

  • 서울 경동맥 마사지
  • 여수서혜부 마사지
  • 여수출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    여수출장안마✿예약금없는출장샵卐여수세종시 마사지『여수유흥 마사지』◇〖여수눈커지는 마사지〗♗여수대구 전립선 마사지ス여수태국 전립선 마사지➛여수정읍 안마방◘여수서울출장안마┸여수스포츠마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 해남출장 조건 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 수원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    광주출장안마
    수원시각장애인 마사지 원주출장샵 공주천안 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 온라인카지노.xyz – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    여수출장안마✙예약금없는출장샵➳여수세종시 마사지『여수금정역 안마방』»〖여수안마방 24시간〗↕여수림프선 마사지❀여수출장 마사지 후기╥여수다리 마사지⊿여수부평 마사지 샵┅여수부평 마사지 샵

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 경상남도스웨디시 마사지 후기 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    여수출장안마↝출장부르는법W여수세종시 마사지『여수출장샵예약포항』◑〖여수서산시 안마방〗◀여수인천공항 마사지↫여수철원 안마방㍿여수휴게텔 안마방 차이✂여수전립선 마사지 기구┓여수서현 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 창원출장안마 .

    부산구미 마사지
    인천예약금 없는 출장 샵 서울출장안마 김천남친 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    여수출장안마➻예약금없는출장샵╔여수세종시 마사지『여수신림역 안마방』ク〖여수안마방 경험〗♚여수단양 안마방☺여수상남동 안마방◑여수이천 마사지┷여수안마방 핸드폰⇪여수부산 모텔

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    여수출장안마υ24시출장샵┌여수세종시 마사지『여수광주 여관』↸〖여수24시 마사지〗❥여수도쿄 안마방┬여수익산 모텔 추천◦여수구미 안마방╘여수미금역 안마방✡여수성내동 안마방

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And tongyanglife.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 익산모텔 아가씨 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    여수출장안마⇖24시출장샵┦여수세종시 마사지『여수고현 안마방』♬〖여수창원 안마방 후기〗◕여수인덕원 안마방λ여수마사지 후기▦여수안마방 몇시▬여수국노✖여수안마방 쓰리섬

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    여수출장안마◢24시출장샵✓여수세종시 마사지『여수안마방 발기』☐〖여수순천 마사지〗↽여수국산 마사지♞여수삼성역 안마방β여수안마방 avi♥여수안마방 미러╓여수안마방 입에 사정

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 단양온천장 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 광주출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 인천마사지 사진 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 광주출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    여수출장안마⇞예약금없는출장샵╢여수세종시 마사지『여수체코 마사지』⇣〖여수산본 마사지〗♫여수베트남 하노이 마사지♩여수타이 마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ⇚여수턱근육 마사지☑여수fc 마사지☀여수안마방 아다

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, lovedonggu.xyz , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and bitsnoop.xyz showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    여수출장안마☽예약금없는출장샵╮여수세종시 마사지『여수상봉 마사지』»〖여수사상 출장〗╗여수강서 안마방1여수일산 타이 마사지►여수안마방 vs 오피ル여수동탄 마사지﹄여수퇴폐

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부여인계동 안마방
    카지노사이트 의정부여성 출장 마사지 대전출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    여수출장안마✃예약⇀여수세종시 마사지『여수출장안마추천』◈〖여수안마방 아이돌〗₪여수연산동 마사지♛여수구미 아로마 마사지γ여수안마방 서비스♞여수조루 안마방✖여수타이마사지 종류

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.여수출장안마여수서양 마사지←여수남친 안마방☏〖여수만수동 마사지〗여수대구 타이 마사지✙여수대구 안마방☜여수마닐라 마사지₪여수천안 안마방⇄bein.xyz예약여수건대 안마방⇛여수광주 마사지↫[여수라오스 마사지 2차]여수용현동 마사지┞여수배 마사지♀여수종아리 근육 마사지┭여수사당역 안마방♝여수출장안마칠곡마사지 하드여수상동 안마방┠여수오피스 방☼〈여수ace anma〉여수일본 안마방○여수에로틱 마사지↾여수타이마사지 추천ス여수포항 모텔 추천ε여수안마방 발기♦여수안마방 오일ヤ(여수안마방 업소)여수대구 여관⊕여수조건 카톡⇪여수모란 안마방☒여수일본식 마사지ス여수안마방 투샷 가격➴여수세종시 안마방♦〖여수코 마사지 전후〗여수안마방 미러ღ여수여관 다방✐여수구월동 안마방〓여수시흥 마사지➺여수수유 마사지☪여수출장 카톡∴{여수일산 마사지}여수피로회복 마사지↔여수안마방 섹스♠여수선릉역 안마방▧ 여수전주 안마방 가격イ출장부르는법창원마사지 효능예약여수마사지 자격증 종류☺여수오야넷 마사지━〖여수고딩 마사지〗여수신촌 안마방⇎여수셀프 어깨 마사지┏여수시흥 마사지↔여수클럭 마사지ノ여수출장안마여수출장안마온라인카지노여수출장몸매최고여수마사지 3만원여수50대 안마방여수안마방 실장여수출장안마여수코 마사지 효과◇여수동암 마사지U「여수속초 마사지」여수안마방 쓰리섬╝여수오일 마사지 av╯여수수유 안마방∷여수건전 마사지☜장수안마방 강남

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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