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  • 진해출장맛사지★예약금없는출장샵エ진해천안 출장《진해장애인 안마방》▪〈진해베트남 마사지 후기〉☴진해의정부 안마방 추천♕진해싸인볼 마사지✄진해마사지 침대♩진해삼산동 출장❀진해양재 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    군산출장샵
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    진해출장맛사지◐예약금없는출장샵»진해천안 출장《진해소프 마사지》⇅〈진해의정부 여관〉➴진해생리통 완화 마사지┲진해v라인 마사지♪진해링검 마사지⇩진해fc2 오일 마사지┺진해대구 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 평택안마방 얼마냐 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    진해출장맛사지→24시출장샵➹진해천안 출장《진해av 마사지》☪〈진해관평동 마사지〉╁진해송탄 마사지⇦진해스포츠마사지┌진해오피♣진해안마방 정액❤진해천안 출장 만남

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    진해출장맛사지➸출장부르는법╬진해천안 출장《진해타이 마사지 가격》ユ〈진해마사지 일본〉△진해익산 모텔 가격☪진해부산 해운대 출장➷진해카카오출장▌진해ace anma➴진해신중동 마사지

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    진해출장맛사지┲24시출장샵♟진해천안 출장《진해대구 모텔 아가씨》♣〈진해광진구 안마방〉╩진해출장서비스⊿진해일본 성인 마사지♥진해vip 마사지➚진해광주 모텔☂진해강동 안마방

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 금산아비게일 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    진해출장맛사지[예약금없는출장샵★진해천안 출장《진해양배추 안마방》π〈진해박중현 안마방〉⊙진해마사지 영상┸진해안면 비대칭 마사지✤진해오일 마사지┇진해석계 안마방⇉진해서울 출장

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

    진해출장맛사지진해안마방 카운터

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    진해출장맛사지↺24시출장샵↩진해천안 출장《진해아빠의 젊은 애인과 끈적한 마사지》☇〈진해마사지 후기〉♬진해육덕 마사지┠진해태국 마사지 야동◐진해흥출장안마♔진해전주 안마방✔진해안마방 풀코스

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 춘천모텔 출장 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    원주출장샵
    익산스웨디시 마사지 정의 천안출장샵 강릉손 마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    진해출장맛사지➢출장부르는법↜진해천안 출장《진해출장걸》┌〈진해퇴폐 마사지〉♪진해서울샵♦진해스웨디시 마사지 정의➶진해포항 여관╁진해후불제 출장샵✘진해범계 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 산청이수역 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    진해출장맛사지⇄예약➥진해천안 출장《진해홍성 안마방》✪〈진해경포대 안마방〉☎진해video.fc2.com 마사지⇩진해안마방 vs 오피√진해둔산동 엘 마사지✈진해서현역 안마방イ진해목포 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 광주출장안마 .

    인제햄스터 마사지
    무주안마방 대기 구미출장안마 철원여성전용 마사지 구인
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    진해출장맛사지⇪출장부르는법リ진해천안 출장《진해교대 마사지》┌〈진해24시간 마사지〉♥진해마산 모텔 추천←진해호텔식 마사지ナ진해사가정 안마방↣진해대산 마사지↮진해진해 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 서울출장샵 .

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    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대전출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 담양멜라니 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    진해출장맛사지♥24시출장샵◇진해천안 출장《진해안마방 처음》↕〈진해고관절 마사지〉┰진해av 마사지⊙진해안마방 오피┛진해충북혁신도시 마사지♩진해전화 tumblr☁진해안마방 안마

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    진해출장맛사지▐예약금없는출장샵➶진해천안 출장《진해안마방 영상》☏〈진해안동 안마방〉♡진해안마방 스탭τ진해안동 안마방⇪진해가슴커지는 마사지☪진해출장안마추천╠ 진해천안 조건

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 무주논현 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 수원출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 화성광양 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    진해출장맛사지┿예약금없는출장샵╥진해천안 출장《진해안마방 사진》♀〈진해커플 마사지〉↷진해수안보 마사지➺진해안마╩진해일산 모텔 가격⇋진해용인 안마방♪ 진해성대역 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 서울출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 목포출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 광주출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    진해출장맛사지✃24시출장샵▷진해천안 출장《진해마사지 동영상》↓〈진해해외 안마방〉φ진해백석동 마사지▧진해순천 타이 마사지↝진해괌 마사지◦진해일산 안마방フ진해청도 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    부안홍성 안마방
    포항출장샵 충주마사지 gif 서울출장안마
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

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    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.진해출장맛사지진해안마방 전화번호✃진해인천 안마방║〈진해안마방 지명녀〉진해콜걸업소✕진해전주 모텔 가격┽진해서양 마사지 야동♟진해안마방 모텔☪카지노사이트예약진해오피스 걸┙진해안마방 청룡열차✍<진해안마방 벌금>진해가락시장 마사지㍿진해나트랑 마사지⇂진해울란바토르 마사지♫진해강남구청 안마방❤진해출장맛사지수원대딸방진해안마방 카드➻진해포항 아가씨┒〈진해영주 마사지〉진해시화 안마방┎진해청량리 안마방┲진해괌 안마방‿진해콜걸출장마사지➻진해새로운 안마방 아가씨✲진해출장샵추천▣(진해일본놈 길거리 한국여자 꼬셔사 마사지)진해경마 시간☴진해강남 전립선 마사지▒진해토요 경마⇪진해한국인 마사지↶진해옥계 마사지╅진해여관 녀┟﹛진해부산 출장안마﹜진해조건 카페┅진해아줌마 안마방┇진해안마방 porn♟진해안마방 쓰리섬➛진해마사지 몰카┈진해베트남 마사지 후기♚〖진해성신여대 마사지〗진해대구 마사지⇀진해냉정 안마방τ진해광주 마사지キ진해커플 마사지 방법╌출장부르는법구미후쿠오카 마사지예약금없는출장샵진해모텔 마사지»진해야동 안마방⊙<진해정선 사북 마사지>진해한국마사지➥진해마사지 품번╳진해눈붓기빼는 마사지✿진해부산 서면 모텔♮진해출장맛사지진해출장맛사지군산출장샵진해간석동 안마방진해마사지 관리사진해흉쇄유돌근 마사지진해인계동 안마방 후기진해출장맛사지진해육덕 마사지☋진해클럭 마사지➛〈진해태국 에스코트 비용〉진해서울대입구 안마방┃진해고잔동 마사지✕진해이기광 안마방⇠진해광대 축소 마사지╍괴산마사지 토렌트

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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