양주출장맛사지☎24시출장샵┓양주진주 안마방「양주강남 안마방 위치」❧《양주마사지 썰》┨양주모텔 걸↛양주기흥구청 마사지➴양주송파구 안마방ェ양주자전거 안마방☂양주상록수역 안마방

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

천안출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

양주출장맛사지♟예약╦양주진주 안마방「양주출장오피」✍《양주마사지 영어》▨양주해운대 출장☆양주신사역 안마방☒양주안산 마사지囍양주오키나와 마사지⇜양주안마방 핸드폰

The governments of more than 190 nations 영광안마방 cctv , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

양주출장맛사지ヒ24시출장샵⇟양주진주 안마방「양주대만 안마방」⇩《양주언양 마사지》ღ양주괌 안마방➳양주부평 에이스 안마방☣양주출장소이스¤양주공유 마사지 찌라시ψ양주엉덩이 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

양주출장맛사지▧ 24시출장샵☏양주진주 안마방「양주마사지 토렌트」♭《양주출장마사지샵》η양주명동 마사지☄양주변비 마사지♀양주출장전화번호☺양주일본 마사지 tumblrノ양주신데렐라 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

양주출장맛사지メ24시출장샵➼양주진주 안마방「양주부산마사지」γ《양주동네 안마방》◐양주천안 조건 만남↕양주화성 안마방☢양주안마방 풋잡•양주황제 마사지↺양주오목교 안마방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 구미오산 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

양주출장맛사지☯출장부르는법➦양주진주 안마방「양주중국전통마사지」╎《양주제천 마사지》☂양주안마방 수원♚양주마사지 만화┞양주여자 부르는 가격═양주괌 마사지☢양주안마방 콘돔

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

양주출장맛사지양주텀블러 여관

  • 신안마사지 로드샵
  • 양주신천 모텔
  • 양주출장맛사지
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    양주출장맛사지♤24시출장샵▦양주진주 안마방「양주안마방 비용」✦《양주성인 마사지》☎양주장안동 안마방┋양주대구 모텔 가격╍양주성수역 마사지◘양주신당동 안마방⇩양주심장 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 춘천태릉입구역 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 수원출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    카지노사이트
    장수화정 안마방 평택출장샵 고령광주 모텔
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 원주출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    양주출장맛사지♦예약금없는출장샵╬양주진주 안마방「양주fc2 한국 마사지」◀《양주고양이 안마방》╧양주시흥 마사지»양주일본 마사지 섹스⇢양주석계 안마방╄양주안마방 안마┨양주하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 논산김천 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    양주출장맛사지⇗24시출장샵ω양주진주 안마방「양주안마방 위키」❤《양주성균관대역 마사지》‿양주안마방 비아그라♣양주커플 마사지 방법╩양주다리 마사지 기계⇙양주가슴 마사지┴양주안마방 아이돌

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 진주출장샵 .

    봉화마사지 사정
    김제안마방 알바 단속 전주출장샵 칠곡안마방 튜브
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    양주출장맛사지╘예약금없는출장샵チ양주진주 안마방「양주대구 서구 안마방」↿《양주일본 해수욕장 마사지》⇅양주부산역 마사지ト양주마사지 홈런❂양주마사지 섹스➽양주모텔 보도↾양주세종시 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 수원출장안마 .

    양주출장맛사지╰출장부르는법⇂양주진주 안마방「양주여자 마사지」ウ《양주전립선 마사지》┃양주척추 마사지☆양주부산 모텔 출장►양주신도림 마사지♔양주여성전용 마사지 구인█양주아스카 키라라 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 온라인카지노 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 제천부산역 모텔 가격 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    양주출장맛사지┫출장부르는법✓양주진주 안마방「양주상무지구 안마방」♕《양주카톡 출장》☪양주후두 마사지█양주일본 성인 마사지♠양주송탄 안마방┨양주하남 마사지❣양주마사지 할인

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    양주출장맛사지✓예약금없는출장샵§양주진주 안마방「양주서울 안마방」♀《양주안마방 단발》✎양주양재 마사지☺양주부산 연산동 안마방☝양주구로디지털단지 안마방♕양주일본 av 마사지υ양주일본 안마방 야동

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 철원안마방 후기 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 온라인카지노 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 군산출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 동해하남 마사지 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that swarovskiwholesalepriceonsale.top . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    양주출장맛사지유출장부르는법→양주진주 안마방「양주인도 마사지」⇏《양주싱가포르 마사지》┯양주부천역 안마방✓양주영등포 안마방╂양주이동국 안마방╝양주밀양 안마방ロ양주사타구니 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 전주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 전주출장샵 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 광주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    양주출장맛사지♂예약♐양주진주 안마방「양주조건 만남 서울」▶《양주에이미 안마방》┭양주하노이 마사지ヒ양주안마방 보지╭양주로미 마사지☐양주임파선 마사지유양주동대구역 근처 모텔

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    계룡칠곡 마사지
    온라인카지노 목포쉼터 안마방 창원출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    양주출장맛사지▌24시출장샵ヒ양주진주 안마방「양주익산 모텔 가격」ノ《양주금천구 안마방》♂양주출장 오피ζ양주중국 마사지 후기▧ 양주여자친구 마사지☳양주방콕 마사지 추천☃양주호텔 출장

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.양주출장맛사지양주티켓 썰▶양주에로틱 마사지◘《양주안마방 모닝콜》양주김천 마사지❄양주허리통증 마사지┯양주여성전용 안마방⇗양주마사지 교육╡대전출장샵24시출장샵양주마사지 ssul‿양주안마방 중독ヒ【양주에스코트 모델】양주가슴커지는 마사지⊥양주미시 마사지☻양주파주 마사지◎양주송탄 마사지☏양주출장맛사지상주왁싱 마사지양주안마방 안마☾양주고현 안마방↛《양주진주 가격》양주근육통 마사지✃양주와이프 마사지ス양주아침에 안마방┯양주서울 안마방 위치▲양주마사지 영상♢양주용인 안마방▨『양주태국 마사지 썰』양주모텔 출장안마♪양주대전 마사지 추천◊양주토요 경마╗양주안마방 발기™양주안마방 사정↖양주출장색시미녀언니➛(양주백마 안마방)양주마산 마사지↩양주장유 마사지⇥양주출장 모텔ネ양주오송 마사지┓양주두피 마사지☈양주눈 커지는 마사지×〖양주1인샵 마사지〗양주안마방 vs 오피┠양주콜걸♭양주마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ♟양주안마방 의자☎출장부르는법칠곡사상 안마방24시출장샵양주안마방 첫경험♫양주club 마사지○【양주공항신도시 마사지】양주왁싱 마사지☂양주출장서비스→양주마사지♈양주평택 마사지☜양주출장맛사지양주출장맛사지군산출장샵양주일본 보빨양주안마방 2:1양주용암동 모텔양주장한평 안마방양주출장맛사지양주마사지 질싸☰양주마사지 관리사♮《양주선릉 마사지》양주오사카 안마방⇠양주흥출장안마☇양주허리 마사지✐양주상무지구 안마방”충청남도연산 안마방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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