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  • 용인출장안마☈24시출장샵✦용인안마방 cctv﹝용인안동 마사지﹞↯《용인군산 여관》⇪용인거유 마사지♠용인귀두 마사지╄용인중국 마사지 가격マ용인안마방 태국녀↔용인video fc2 마사지

    As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

    수원출장안마
    French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

    용인출장안마⇁출장부르는법⇎용인안마방 cctv﹝용인성대 마사지﹞↘《용인브베 안마방》⇏용인몰카 안마방↕용인안마방 복장ヒ용인마사지 하다가⇣용인울산 안마방☼용인대딸 마사지

    The governments of more than 190 nations 김해감성마사지 뜻 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

    용인출장안마➦출장부르는법╈용인안마방 cctv﹝용인일베 모텔﹞┏《용인진접 안마방》×용인봉담 마사지★용인지저분한 색스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지☣용인강동구 마사지ス용인창원 출장 숙소[용인계룡 안마방

    Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

    Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

    용인출장안마☞24시출장샵➨용인안마방 cctv﹝용인금호동 안마방﹞┌《용인video fc2 마사지》β용인코 높아지는 마사지↞용인여수 마사지☲용인안마방 20대☏용인잠실 안마방™용인스웨디시 마사지 단점

    Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 온라인카지노 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

    용인출장안마フ예약금없는출장샵ロ용인안마방 cctv﹝용인화정 마사지﹞◙《용인여성전용 마사지 구인》フ용인부산 하단 출장☆용인동탄 마사지 후기☪용인동암역 마사지⇪용인안마방 에이스 토렌트◇용인니시미야 코노미 마사지

    They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

    Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 평창청라 마사지 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

    용인출장안마◑출장부르는법☠용인안마방 cctv﹝용인김해 출장 샵﹞┩《용인시흥 안마방》♕용인안마방 어디까지☃용인천안 안마방 후기┈용인태국마사지 후기☢용인안마방 휴게텔γ용인이하루 마사지

    No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

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  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    용인출장안마↰24시출장샵♝용인안마방 cctv﹝용인에이스 안마방﹞➼《용인안마방 태국》┗용인여관 콜λ용인계산택지 안마방◎용인사상 출장▫용인안마방 초이스.mp4✿용인흑인 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 익산일산 여관 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 카지노사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    전주출장샵
    의정부중리동 안마방 온라인카지노 진해안양역 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 부산출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    용인출장안마⇚예약금없는출장샵▦용인안마방 cctv﹝용인신림동 여관﹞❤《용인필리핀 마사지》♥용인안마방 시간제イ용인송파구 안마방⇙용인sod 마사지┬용인안마방 썰만화♭용인부산 출장 서비스

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 양주안마방 몰카 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    용인출장안마♪예약┲용인안마방 cctv﹝용인금정 안마방﹞◈《용인마사지 토렌토》╟용인삼성역 안마방⇁용인코 높아지는 마사지▪용인구로디지털단지 마사지☻용인목욕탕 마사지▧ 용인건전 마사지

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 바카라사이트 .

    충청남도영등포구청 안마방
    제천예약금 없는 출장 온라인카지노 통영탈모 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    용인출장안마⇃예약✪용인안마방 cctv﹝용인신도림 안마방﹞╭《용인순천 중국 마사지》√용인남자 출장 마사지┨용인안마방 대기→용인여관 비용❧용인마사지 품번♞용인암사동 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 대구출장안마 .

    용인출장안마━예약╮용인안마방 cctv﹝용인출장안마 후기﹞⇢《용인의정부 안마방》➹용인말레이시아 마사지☀용인안마방 24시간♧용인여자 모텔✏용인광교 마사지↙용인오피 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 부산출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 증평부산 연산동 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    용인출장안마╌24시출장샵❈용인안마방 cctv﹝용인여자 부르는 가격﹞╨《용인안마방 물다이》☑용인중국 마사지 체험기♐용인안마방 밥ツ용인강릉 조건녀╀용인안마방 옵션☻용인거제도 모텔 추천

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    용인출장안마オ예약금없는출장샵┺용인안마방 cctv﹝용인새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트﹞◘《용인여관 콜》➸용인호텔식 마사지♤용인구미 마사지→용인전립선 마사지 기구╗용인안마방 요도염↶용인가산동 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 성남상봉 안마방 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 천안출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 광주출장안마 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 대전안마방 야간 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 창원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    용인출장안마ス출장부르는법↣용인안마방 cctv﹝용인합정 마사지﹞☆《용인안마방 야동》ワ용인마사지 품번◦용인까치산 안마방W용인경산 마사지カ용인칠곡3지구 마사지➛용인안마방 정보

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 부산출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 포항출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    용인출장안마♘예약τ용인안마방 cctv﹝용인항문 마사지﹞➺《용인인천 출장 마사지》♪ 용인노원 마사지 추천↕용인제주 연동 마사지┤용인안마방 영어로▒용인마사지 간판 구분♝용인후불제 출장샵

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    경산안마방 위키
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    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

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    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.용인출장안마용인다낭 호텔 마사지△용인검암 안마방⇥《용인출장녀》용인세븐 안마방♞용인안마방 김치남➹용인서귀포 마사지┤용인일본 안마방┕대전출장안마출장부르는법용인모텔출장마사지샵ネ용인엄태웅 안마방.「용인미시출장안마」용인마사지 업소チ용인상남동 마사지╖용인창녕 마사지↺용인안양 안마방ⓛ용인출장안마보령여자 안마방용인턱근육 마사지╩용인대만 안마방⇢(용인공주 안마방)용인길동 마사지╩용인사상구 마사지♚용인태릉입구역 안마방↸용인포항 안마방⇠용인태국 마사지 후기⇐용인성서 안마방┗〔용인동탄 마사지 후기〕용인출장샵⇇용인안마방 나무↣용인지저분한 섹스 나고야 여성 전용 마사지┦용인신흥 안마방┴용인중리동 안마방☈용인손가락 마사지⇂(용인안마방 비비기)용인폰섹 녹음⊙용인태국 마사지 종류↓용인마사지 수면실✕용인마사지 핸플┚용인울산 안마방 추천☏용인국산 안마방✏〈용인출장업소〉용인전립선 마사지 tumblr┫용인안마ⓛ용인신도림 안마방✈용인안마방 사귄♡출장부르는법충청북도광대 축소 마사지예약금없는출장샵용인아로마 마사지 부작용◎용인상암동 안마방┕[용인림프 마사지 금기 사항]용인안마방 키스 가능↼용인마사지 야동 토렌트♐용인봉천 안마방⇞용인천안 카페↨용인출장안마용인출장안마구미출장안마용인손가락 마사지용인신림동 안마방용인마사지 홈런용인겨드랑이 마사지용인출장안마용인일본 마사지 야동☏용인세븐 상추 안마방メ﹝용인시흥동 안마방﹞용인마사지 트위터✁용인거제도 여관┺용인구로디지털단지 마사지✔용인마사지 나무위키コ인천안마방 동창

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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