고성콜걸♂24시출장샵┸고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성안마방 처음]↼[고성울산 삼산동 안마방]↮고성안마방 보빨♩고성중앙동 안마방↤고성안마방 중독☋고성누들누 드⇚고성마사지 1위 작품

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

군산출장안마
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

고성콜걸┢예약☠고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성안마방 나무위키]◈[고성근육통 마사지]♪고성연산 안마방▤고성안마방 위험┮고성유두 마사지☻고성부산 모텔▷고성에이스 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 합천실제 안마방 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

고성콜걸⇜예약금없는출장샵リ고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성베트남 마사지]✍[고성강서구 마사지]↲고성마사지 동영상♧고성다낭 vip 마사지↩고성안마방 누드⇄고성천안안마┫고성영화 히든 토렌트

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

고성콜걸➡예약금없는출장샵ラ고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성경찰 안마방]⇪[고성남성전용마사지]┺고성전립선 마사지 썰▷고성문산 마사지╡고성안마방 코스λ고성한대앞 마사지✡고성안마방 카드결제

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

고성콜걸┝예약▒고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성필리핀 안마방]╞[고성안마방 만화]└고성무한샷 안마방¤고성다낭 마사지 추천↰고성양곡 안마방☵고성성내동 안마방⊙고성출장샵예약

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 함평라페 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

고성콜걸ニ예약금없는출장샵►고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성안마방 역립]ス[고성다이소 마사지]✆고성출장코스가격╓고성안마방 투샷 가격━고성로미로미 마사지↮고성일본 마사지 av╳고성20대 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 서울출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

고성콜걸고성lovegom

  • 전라남도마포구 안마방
  • 고성퇴폐 마사지
  • 고성콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    고성콜걸▨출장부르는법┩고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성마사지 앱]✈[고성강원도 안마방]✡고성별내 안마방✉고성안마방 백마♥고성안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임┼고성턱관절 마사지✦고성방이동 안마방

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 부산마사지 나무위키 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 광주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    대구출장안마
    전주강서구 안마방 창원출장샵 경상북도안산 대딸방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 대전출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    고성콜걸サ예약♀고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성마사지 품번]♐[고성김무열 마사지]┼고성부산 모텔 촌➹고성근육통 마사지♘고성링검 마사지♐고성양평 안마방➸고성낙성대 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 광주만남 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    고성콜걸╋예약↣고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성마사지 야동]エ[고성동작구 안마방]┲고성안마방 대화┅고성신흥 안마방1고성오류동 마사지❂고성사상 안마방▫고성안마방 싼

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장안마 .

    청도타이 마사지 꿀팁
    의정부정읍 안마방 카지노사이트 사천성균관대역 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    고성콜걸⇊24시출장샵♧고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성포항 터미널 모텔]♂[고성안마방 일베]♚고성서정리 안마방﹌고성로미 마사지↩고성모텔 콜┲고성동작구 안마방ル고성일산 안마방 가격

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 목포출장안마 .

    고성콜걸↷24시출장샵✚고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성구월동 안마방]♜[고성제목없음 안마방]的고성안성 안마방☌고성곤지암 마사지↺고성마사지 배우는곳▶고성마사지 사진☀고성마사지 로드샵

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 광주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 군산정선 사북 마사지 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    고성콜걸❂예약─고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성서혜부 마사지 란]◕[고성울산 삼산동 출장]┇고성조건 만남 카톡☍고성커플 마사지 tumblr↿고성출장색시미녀언니μ고성수원 마사지 추천┮고성여성 전용 아로마 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    고성콜걸╔예약♫고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성시화 안마방]┨[고성전립선 마사지 썰]☀고성사상 안마방マ고성가경동 안마방☋고성유선 마사지♭고성독산동 마사지◄고성수내 마사지

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 원주퇴폐 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 대구출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 강진신림 모텔 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 천안출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    고성콜걸╬ 예약✉고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성안마방 혼자]➼[고성대구 타이 마사지]▫고성소라넷 안마방✡고성안마방 단속시간▄고성경마 시간☪고성국노 torrent┠고성림프 마사지 금기 사항

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 평택출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 서울출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 카지노사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    고성콜걸ェ예약금없는출장샵╧고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성얼굴 경락 마사지]✪[고성대구 마사지]→고성건대 마사지✍고성발산역 안마방♈고성얼굴 림프 마사지►고성대전 안마방 추천☂고성여주 모텔 추천

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    전라남도안마방 런베스트
    진주출장샵 제천진주 오피 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    고성콜걸★예약▶고성전립선 마사지 효과[고성안마방 태국녀]☎[고성안마방 와꾸]✔고성피파 안마방☼고성출장오쓰피걸⇃고성석계역 안마방✕고성도쿄 안마방╟고성강남 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.고성콜걸고성여자친구 마사지┮고성마카오 마사지▧[고성덕천 마사지]고성안마방 무한»고성모텔출장마사지샵➼고성도쿄 마사지ム고성안마방 처음◐온라인카지노출장부르는법고성제주도 안마방 추천✿고성문정동 마사지↠『고성타이마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ』고성일산 마사지¤고성강서 안마방¤고성논현 마사지ο고성마사지 볼タ고성콜걸금산명동 마사지고성산호동 마사지↞고성남양주시 안마방♯〔고성안마방 아가씨〕고성하당 마사지┨고성경주 마사지♠고성서해부 마사지♣고성파타야 마사지┯고성외국인출장만남ⓛ고성상대보호구역❤「고성ace anma」고성마사지 배우기ⓛ고성근육 마사지♧고성송원장 마사지△고성파타야 마사지ⓛ고성중국식 마사지┋고성대딸 마사지┃<고성하드코어 안마방>고성남성 전용 마사지φ고성허벅지 마사지●고성출장 마사지✂고성타이 마사지 아로마╛고성임파선 마사지♪고성일본 해수욕장 마사지→﹝고성동탄 안마방﹞고성생리통 마사지»고성타이 마사지 토렌트☊고성출장업소╡고성19금 마사지╤예약금없는출장샵화성오창 마사지출장부르는법고성헬로 마사지┩고성모텔 tumblr╪[고성안마방 감염]고성안마방 avi✕고성섹스 마사지▨고성타이 마사지 단속❂고성긴장성 두통 마사지ミ고성콜걸고성콜걸서울출장안마고성천안 출장고성마산 안마방고성군산 여관고성동두천 마사지고성콜걸고성트랜스젠더 안마방➠고성손목 마사지♪‹고성동대문 안마방›고성대전복합터미널 마사지♐고성양평 마사지.고성해운대 출장❄고성대구 전립선 마사지⇚순창다리 마사지 기계

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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