강진출장샵↥출장부르는법★강진안마방 단속시간(강진출장오피)♥【강진출장마사wl】☂강진구의역 마사지▪강진대구 모텔┥강진출장샵강추☏강진태국 마사지 썰☠강진신원동 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

군산출장샵
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

강진출장샵┝예약☠강진안마방 단속시간(강진구리 모텔 추천)◘【강진마사지 영어】╋강진휴게텔 안마방♨강진성균관대역 마사지↫강진진주 가격⇂강진산남동 마사지⇖강진기획 마사지

The governments of more than 190 nations 서귀포선릉 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

강진출장샵✌24시출장샵♝강진안마방 단속시간(강진안마방 못쌈)♦【강진안마방 키스】☻강진태국 마사지 가격▪강진필리핀 안마방╢강진최음 마사지╃강진방이동 여관-강진안마방 vip

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

강진출장샵∴예약금없는출장샵☆강진안마방 단속시간(강진정준하 마사지)┙【강진합성동 안마방】╒강진자궁 마사지☴강진남자 출장 마사지♗강진파타야 마사지☏강진안마방 초이스┧강진마사지 핸플

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 군산출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

강진출장샵◘예약금없는출장샵ア강진안마방 단속시간(강진다낭 마사지 추천)◐【강진24시 마사지】ホ강진경찰 안마방⊙강진아주대 안마방❥강진부산 연산동 안마방♠강진마사지 테라피➽강진논현 마사지

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 이천안마방 하늘이 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

강진출장샵➳24시출장샵◑강진안마방 단속시간(강진안마방 투샷)❈【강진덕천동 마사지】▒강진용원 안마방╯강진안마방 하드♥강진오피 안마방┯강진림프 마사지✄강진강릉 타이 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

강진출장샵강진구리 모텔 추천

  • 부평울산 명촌 안마방
  • 강진대전 모텔 추천
  • 강진출장샵
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    강진출장샵☰예약금없는출장샵☀강진안마방 단속시간(강진광안리 안마방)◈【강진남성 전용 마사지】↣강진도쿄 마사지☀강진방콕 마사지 추천⇩강진태국 마사지 torrent┣강진안마방 직원▥강진국노 torrent

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 광명kcm 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 대구출장샵 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    제주출장안마
    음성안마방 경험 포항출장안마 완주출장 만남 대행
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 서울출장안마 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    강진출장샵➛24시출장샵♪ 강진안마방 단속시간(강진군산 모텔 가격)♖【강진고양이 안마방】╌강진안마방 무료야동◐강진모텔 마사지┯강진상인동 안마방.강진김해 모텔 추천➴강진성감 마사지

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 속초출장 오피 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    강진출장샵↼24시출장샵╁강진안마방 단속시간(강진마석 안마방)⇩【강진출장샵추천】U강진잠실 안마방☁강진포천 안마방エ강진하단 마사지✁강진출장마사지┋강진에스코트 모델

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 서울출장샵 .

    정선선릉 마사지
    함안안마방 아다 econo-edu.xyz 원주이종찬 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    강진출장샵☋출장부르는법«강진안마방 단속시간(강진출장샵)╟【강진여성 출장 마사지】⇢강진흉부 마사지▒강진파주 마사지┻강진신도림 마사지◣강진베트남 하노이 마사지❖강진타이 안마방

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 평택출장샵 .

    강진출장샵◐예약♡강진안마방 단속시간(강진낙성대 마사지)☰【강진마사지 젤】☯강진안마방 수위♦강진안마방 떡◑강진[한국]새로운 안마방 아가씨.wmv.torrent■강진안마방 단속✏강진충주 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And gvya.xyz .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 양구강남역 안마방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    강진출장샵①예약♠강진안마방 단속시간(강진유부녀 마사지)┱【강진오피걸】▧강진50m↶강진미아 안마방サ강진무거동 출장☂강진모텔 티켓↺강진안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    강진출장샵ヤ예약╊강진안마방 단속시간(강진건전한 마사지)ν【강진범계 안마방】⊙강진출장안마 가격➹강진동대구역 모텔┷강진불법 마사지❤강진안마방▶강진신천 안마방

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 함안부산 모텔 촌 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 전주출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 카지노사이트 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 합천고딩 안마방 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 원주출장샵 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    강진출장샵▦24시출장샵┯강진안마방 단속시간(강진안마방 통화기록)➺【강진안마방 정보】║강진콜 걸☶강진부산 해운대 출장☢강진대구 안마방☻강진단양 안마방⇋강진중국모델 슈가

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 포항출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 대전출장안마 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 천안출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    강진출장샵♝예약✗강진안마방 단속시간(강진두정동 마사지)┯【강진구리 마사지】◈강진출장아가씨╂강진머리 마사지π강진출장샵♭강진안마방 얼마냐►강진마사지 섹스

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    양주오피 마사지
    포항출장샵 신안마석 안마방 카지노사이트
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    강진출장샵○출장부르는법◥강진안마방 단속시간(강진아주동 마사지)▷【강진서산시 안마방】➻강진신천 마사지╩강진인천공항 마사지↔강진심장 마사지☆강진안마방 번호☟강진동네 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.강진출장샵강진광주 스타 안마방➹강진장유 마사지┘【강진안양 안마방】강진구디 안마방❂강진두피 마사지✕강진서울 출장 마사지⇪강진부산대 안마방◎수원출장샵24시출장샵강진안마방 누드↗강진신도림 마사지➚(강진광명사거리 안마방)강진안마방 오피┓강진부산 안마방 후기╩강진세부 마사지 엑스트라▣강진정왕역 안마방♀강진출장샵예천마사지 앱강진콧대 마사지 효과U강진모텔 여자▩〖강진신사역 마사지〗강진출장서비스보장╀강진안마방 코스♧강진제주시 안마방☭강진두통 완화 마사지❤강진전국 안마방κ강진안마방 수원▲《강진만남》강진건대 안마방❀강진의정부 모텔 추천✕강진쿤타이 마사지❖강진모텔 부산»강진석계역 안마방ケ강진여성 출장 마사지ν{강진남양주 안마방}강진여자 모텔£강진도쿄 안마방♣강진국노 torrentλ강진안마방 나이㍿강진마사지 커뮤니티♂강진마사지 영상╝[강진일산 마사지]강진건전한 마사지♣강진블라디보스톡 마사지㍿강진만남 방⇊강진해운대 모텔▩예약아산긴장성 두통 마사지예약금없는출장샵강진출장연애인급➹강진정준호 안마방]「강진대전복합터미널 마사지」강진콜걸샵➥강진포항 여관↕강진고딩 안마방⇛강진카카오출장➳강진출장샵강진출장샵서울출장안마강진찌라시 썰강진코 마사지 전후강진세븐 안마방강진마사지 배우기강진출장샵강진안마방 빡촌♛강진야탑 마사지 후기♫「강진기획 마사지」강진역출장안마☏강진19 마사지☣강진얼굴 경락 마사지┙강진얼굴 경락 마사지╦영주안산 줄리엣 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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