하동콜걸U24시출장샵╛하동마사지【하동건대 마사지】☁[하동av 에이미]◈하동수지 안마방┿하동요괴 마사지☈하동안마방 한국☒하동양재역 안마방☀하동불알 마사지

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

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French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

하동콜걸W24시출장샵╚하동마사지【하동마사지 흥분】▨[하동아로마 마사지 효능]⇈하동마사지 효능▣하동동해 마사지✉하동해수욕장 마사지 토렌트☼하동기획 마사지♀하동안마방 오전

The governments of more than 190 nations 전주외국인출장만남 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

하동콜걸§출장부르는법▥하동마사지【하동정왕역 안마방】㍿[하동안마방 20살]╡하동일본 av 마사지☈하동순천 타이 마사지リ하동대구 모텔 아가씨▒하동호치민 마사지 추천♡하동모텔 콜

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

하동콜걸┿24시출장샵╓하동마사지【하동상동 안마방】▦[하동영종도 안마방]⇢하동등 마사지┧하동안마사 자격증α하동당진 안마방❧하동정지훈 안마방↶하동거제도 여관

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories xlsx.xyz . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

하동콜걸⇅출장부르는법▒하동마사지【하동안마방 콘돔】☜[하동안마방 인증]◢하동안마방 몰카 유출~ 대화 대박임┠하동사상구 마사지◎하동마사지 tumblr✡하동부산 수영 안마방☴하동천안 대딸방

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 창원신림역 안마방 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

하동콜걸┙예약금없는출장샵⊿하동마사지【하동청라 마사지】▨[하동강서구청 마사지]○하동타이 마사지 단속⇪하동여성 전용 마사지♢하동안마방 젤W하동종아리 마사지 기계ヌ하동강서구청 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

하동콜걸하동전효성 마사지

  • 부천안마방 알바 벌금
  • 하동전립선 마사지 느낌
  • 하동콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    하동콜걸▶24시출장샵▌하동마사지【하동신도림 안마방】▼[하동마사지 토렌트]✄하동두피 마사지♂하동출장여대생↞하동마사지 효능♯하동텀블러 여관↔하동안마방 20대

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 성주강동구 안마방 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 바카라사이트 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    평택출장샵
    봉화이진호 안마방 카지노사이트 괴산강남 타이마사지
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 포항출장샵 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    하동콜걸☏출장부르는법☾하동마사지【하동춘천 모텔 가격】✑[하동마사지 서비스]δ하동동남아 안마방⇙하동당진 마사지☄하동오산 마사지●하동안마방 수원☼하동중국 마사지 종류

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 연천마사지 로드샵 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    하동콜걸☎예약❂하동마사지【하동마사지 트위터】①[하동배곧 마사지]γ하동타이 마사지 팁┤하동옆광대 마사지☂하동말레이시아 마사지卐하동에스테틱 마사지➛하동등 마사지 방법

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 대전출장샵 .

    양구조건 만남 서울
    단양인천안마 진주출장샵 아산춘천 태국 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    하동콜걸ヨ24시출장샵▨하동마사지【하동일산 타이 마사지】═[하동일본마사지]▨하동안마방 여자친구▄하동어깨 결림 마사지╝하동금촌 안마방╥하동강남 마사지❃하동광주 터미널 근처 모텔

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 온라인카지노 .

    하동콜걸╔예약★하동마사지【하동해운대 마사지】U[하동스즈하라 에미리 마사지]U하동이종찬 마사지◑하동상남동 마사지☏하동인천 마사지▧하동원주 안마방↣하동정선 마사지

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 대전출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 횡성오피스 방 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    하동콜걸►24시출장샵♂하동마사지【하동눈붓기빼는 마사지】❃[하동성수역 마사지]τ하동jav 마사지♔하동라페 안마방┧하동신림 안마방┩하동탑 클래스☁하동베트남 하노이 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    하동콜걸セ24시출장샵▬하동마사지【하동오일 마사지 av】┚[하동포승읍 안마방]┑하동대전 모텔 추천♕하동원주 안마방✏하동안마방 비비기✿하동천안 카페♨하동경마 예상 지존 대회

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 고창울란바토르 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 서울출장샵 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 군산출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 포천부산 출장 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 구미출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    하동콜걸ェ출장부르는법⊙하동마사지【하동수원 안마방】✐[하동상인동 안마방]❤하동방콕 마사지 가격◥하동모텔 tumblr▧ 하동성기 마사지ⓔ하동노원 마사지↝하동발안 모텔

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 전주출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: loveganghwa.xyz showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 광주출장안마 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    하동콜걸♙출장부르는법✐하동마사지【하동영천 마사지】⇔[하동안마방 시간]╘하동tumblr 마사지╁하동경주 안마방│하동최음 마사지ユ하동수유 안마방☆하동소라넷 마사지

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    철원광주 여관
    대전출장샵 김포태국 마사지 불법 천안출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    하동콜걸▥예약금없는출장샵ミ하동마사지【하동마사지 발기】◆[하동석계역 안마방]♬하동fc 마사지♩하동안마방 tumblr☝하동안마방 누드❥하동동대구역 여관▤하동타이마사지 꿀팁

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.하동콜걸하동안마방 video☣하동광주 터미널 근처 모텔☪[하동정왕동 안마방]하동천안 안마△하동화정 마사지モ하동천안 카페⇂하동오피걸➷창원출장샵예약하동잠실 마사지☏하동안마방 알바 썰♥{하동제주시 안마방}하동논산 안마방⇚하동익산 마사지┙하동종아리 마사지 기계☈하동산본 마사지♚하동콜걸봉화안마방 fc2하동안마방 미러☞하동강아지 마사지ム〖하동마사지 앱〗하동수유 마사지♦하동덕계 마사지╄하동건전 마사지§하동군산 터미널 모텔▦하동출장오쓰피걸✪하동상하이 마사지➴〔하동노원 마사지 추천〕하동정왕동 안마방♯하동마사지 야.동♪하동소프 마사지♠하동타이 마사지 후기♂하동군자역 안마방◇하동부산 안마방 후기┈[하동궐동 안마방]하동방콕 마사지τ하동안마방 만화✈하동대구 아로마 마사지₪하동미약 마사지ノ하동금정 안마방❀하동대구 모텔 추천╚<하동안마방 업소>하동엑소 안마방★하동영등포 안마방☇하동사가정 안마방→하동안마방 복장✄24시출장샵김제최음제 마사지출장부르는법하동외국인출장만남→하동출장전화번호✍<하동길동 안마방>하동오십견 마사지⊙하동마사지 전단지⇙하동두정동 안마방☽하동안마방 구분┷하동콜걸하동콜걸서울출장안마하동안마방 역립하동마사지 전단지하동창동역 마사지하동중국전통마사지 팁하동콜걸하동마사지 영어로◎하동타이마사지 서비스➛[하동인천안마]하동마사지 단속 시간█하동수유역 아로마 마사지⇤하동칠곡 마사지↕하동출장전화번호♝경상북도안산 대딸방

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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